Computers Tips

How to setup Windows 11 without Microsoft Account And Enable Local Account

Understanding the Offline Account Challenge in Windows 11 In the recent update of Windows 11, users have noticed that the option to create an offline account is not readily available. Instead, the system pushes users to create or sign in with a Microsoft account. This can be frustrating for those who prefer to use an…

How to Disintegrate PDF File in Windows, Android and iOS?

How to Disintegrate PDF File in Windows, Android and iOS?

Preliminary Considerations Before Disintegrate PDF File Understanding PDF Structure A PDF, short for Portable Document Format, isn’t just a flat document. It’s a combination of layers, objects, references, and more. Dissecting it requires understanding its complexity. Anatomy of a PDF: Why PDFs are harder to dissect than plain text files? Prerequisite Tools Entering the realm…

Hardware Firewall: Types, Parts, Best Practices and Maintenance

Hardware Firewall: Types, Parts, Best Practices and Maintenance

A Hardware Firewall is a physical device placed between a local network and an external network, such as the Internet. Unlike Software Firewalls, which operate on individual computers, hardware firewalls filter traffic for an entire network. Core Functions of a Hardware Firewall Understanding the core functions of a hardware firewall is pivotal for its effective…

NetBIOS Protocol: Function, Comparison, Considerations, Troubleshooting

NetBIOS Protocol: Function, Comparison, Considerations, Troubleshooting

Historical Overview The NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) protocol was developed by IBM in the early 1980s as a part of the IBM PC Network. Its role was pivotal for software communications over LAN (Local Area Network) systems. Origin and Evolution Usage Shift Core Functionality and Components NetBIOS serves as an API (Application Programming Interface)…

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP): Architecture, Features, and Extensions

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP): Architecture, Features, and Extensions

What is IMAP? Definition History and Evolution Comparison with Other Protocols Protocol Mail Retrieval/Sync Server-side Storage Customization IMAP Synchronization Yes High POP3 Retrieval No Medium MAPI Both Optional High Webmail N/A Yes Low IMAP Architecture Client-Server Model Command and Response Mechanism Command Functionality Customizable FETCH Retrieve individual or parts of emails Yes STORE Modify server-side…

DHCP: History, 3 Components, Security and Troubleshooting

DHCP: History, 3 Components, Security and Troubleshooting

Basics of DHCP Historical Background In the early days of networking, the ARPANET, a precursor to the internet, relied on static IP address allocation. This manual process was cumbersome and inefficient, leading to the creation of BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol). DHCP emerged as an evolution, offering dynamic, automated IP address management. RFC Standards The protocols and…

ISDP (Integrated Systems Development Plan): Tools and Best Practices

ISDP (Integrated Systems Development Plan): Tools and Best Practices

Overview of ISDP Definition of ISDP Integrated Systems Development Plan (ISDP) refers to a structured approach to designing, implementing, and maintaining a system. Born from methodologies like Waterfall and Agile, it serves as a framework for multi-disciplinary teams to collaborate and achieve project goals. It’s particularly crucial in fields such as healthcare, finance, and retail…

Self-Monitoring Analysis & Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T) for Hard Disk

Self-Monitoring Analysis & Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T) for Hard Disk

Mechanics of S.M.A.R.T. Technology Fundamentals What It Is: Self-monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology, commonly known as S.M.A.R.T., is a built-in monitoring system for computer hard disk drives (HDDs) and solid-state drives (SSDs). How It Works: The technology works by monitoring various indicators of disk reliability in real-time. These indicators, also called attributes, are then analyzed…

Secure Shell (SSH): Concept, Best Practices and Troubleshooting Issues

Secure Shell (SSH): Concept, Best Practices and Troubleshooting Issues

What is Secure Shell (SSH)? Secure Shell (SSH) is a network protocol used primarily for secure remote login and data communication between two networked computers. It encrypts the data transmitted over the network, thus providing a shield against eavesdropping, data breaches, and other security vulnerabilities. Origin and History Importance SSH serves multiple purposes in the…

Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI): Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Future

Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI): Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Future

Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) is a security feature predominantly used in firewalls to monitor the state of active connections and to determine the validity of packets traversing a network. It differentiates itself from stateless packet inspection by maintaining context or “state” of ongoing sessions. Historical Origins and Evolution of SPI Understanding the evolution of SPI…