Infertility is a condition of unable to get a clinical pregnancy after one or 2 years of regular unprotected intercourse. Infertility can result from frequent miscarriages, hormonal disorders, lifestyle, and other factors.
Most couples want to be patients at one point in life. Understanding normal pregnancy is very tough to understand. As per the report, 10 to 16% of couples have trouble conceiving or successful childbirth.
In most of the cases, both males and females are equally responsible for infertility. But in some cases, whether a male is responsible or female is responsible for this situation.
Female infertility is difficult to understand. Normal aging in females decreases the woman’s ability to get pregnant.
Here, In this article, we will provide you all the information related to female infertility.
What is Infertility?
Infertility affects up to 18 percent of the couple who have a desire for their child.
Female infertility may be that one partner cannot participate in the conception, or a female is not able to carry a fetus for the long term. It can define as when a female is not able to conceive after 12 months or more than this of regular unprotected intercourse.
What are the Essentials factors for Successful Fertilization?
Fertilization needs to these factors is essential to become pregnant.
Ovulation refers to releasing an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. Generally, it usually happens halfway of the menstrual cycle, the cycle continues for 28 days and repeats itself.
In this process the egg releases from the ovaries. Once it released, it started to travel towards the fallopian tubes. Moreover, fallopian tubes are the place where fertilization occurs.
If you want to get pregnant, you need to check your ovulating days. A female will be more likely to get pregnant if she has sex while ovulation period.
If you are not getting pregnant on regular intercourse during the ovulation period, you should consult with a physician.
Sperm Count & Health
As per the study, 30 percent of infertility may occur due to the male partner. If you are not getting pregnant after the regular unprotected intercourse, you must check with the doctor regarding low sperm count or sperm health.
A man typically ejaculates 250 million sperms in the vagina. A successful pregnancy requires to swim the sperm cell towards fallopian tubes. Only 100 sperm can get fertilize with ova.
A semen test can confirm infertility caused by male semen. For a successful pregnancy, It needs a good quality of sperm. Low semen count doesn’t mean that you cannot get conceive.
If the sperm of your partner is healthy and able to move towards the fallopian tube, it may just take more intercourse to get pregnant. Low secretion of male hormone decreases the sperm count.
You can meet a reproductive endocrinologist for further details.
You need to have regular intercourse, especially during the fertilization period of women. A fertilization period makes you more fertile and chances are on the higher side to get pregnant.
Moreover, you can track the cycle of ovulation based on mensural days of repeating every month. An ideal day of ovulation is the 14th day of the menstrual cycle, but it can slightly differ.
An open fallopian Tubes and Good quality of Uterus
A fallopian tube plays an important role in successful reproduction. Sometimes, due to certain things changes in the structure of fallopian tubed that lead the further cause of infertility.
It is the medium of transferring the fertilized zygote to the uterus. fertilized egg implant the endometrium wall of the uterus. Uterus holds the baby until the baby gets mature to deliver.
Steps Involved in the successful Pregnancy
There are a few steps that must happen for a successful pregnancy. In general, a beautiful journey of a new life begins like this.
- Regular intercourse without any barrier is must be needed to get pregnant, especially at the time of the ovulation period.
- During intercourse, a man ejaculates his sperm into the vagina of a female.
- The female ovary releases the egg when the hypothalamus sends a signal to the pituitary gland to stimulate FSH.
- Once the egg gets matured, it breaks the wall of follicle and gets out of the ovary and move towards the fallopian tubes.
- Once the man ejaculates in the vagina, sperm started to travel through the vaginal canal, cervix, and uterus.
- The healthy one sperm comes into touch with egg and penetrates the exterior wall of the egg. it enters into the egg and fertilization gets successfully.
- This zygote starts dividing over the next few hours and turns into the embryo.
- The embryo further starts to divide for 4 days and slowly move towards the uterus.
- After the continuous division of cells turns into blastocytes and gets implant into the uterus as a fetus.
- Uterus takes care of the fetus and helps to develop it into a mature baby.
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What are the Causes of Female Infertility?
In female infertility, several factors might affect the above steps. A few factors of destroying pregnancy are given below:-
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOD)
PCOD is a type of hormonal disorder that affects 10 percent of the woman population. Women with PCOD produce the male hormone more than the required amount. Moreover, an imbalance of the male hormone can cause irregular periods.
As per the research, 70 percent of woman with PCOD hasn’t diagnosed. It affects the cycle of t estrogen and progesterone hormone in the body. In addition to these, it affects the ovulation level.
It causes the fluid-filled sacs growth inside the ovaries. Each sac filled with immature egg, that never mature enough to trigger the ovulation.
The disturbance of the menstrual cycle one of the major factors of female infertility. It may cause extra facial hair and obesity.
What are the Causes of Female Infertility?
It is also called primary ovarian insufficiency- it happens when ovaries stop doing their normal function before the age of 40. This is the condition when ovaries do not produce the normal level of estrogen and irregular release of the egg.
Skipping of periods, Hot flashes, Night sweat, Vaginal dryness, Irritability, and loos of sexual desire are the major symptoms of this disorder.
It can cause infertility in females because of the irregular production of eggs and lower production of pregnancy hormones.
Hypothalmic dysfunction can have a major cause of female infertility. It is the major problem with the part of the brain because it regulates the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus maintains the normal function of the body. It helps to balance the appetite and weight, body temperature, childbirth, sexual desire, electrolyte balance, and behavior.
In addition to the above, it also controls the adrenal glands, ovaries, and thyroid.
As we know hypothalamus balances the function of pituitary glands. Moreover, pituitary glands are responsible for the function of LH & FSH. Once the hypothalamus gets disturbed, it leads to lower the production of LH and FSH.
Lower the pregnancy hormone in the body can lead to the cause of infertility.
Higher Level of Prolactin
Prolactin is responsible for the development of breast tissues and milk at the time of childbirth. A higher level of prolactin reduces the estrogen level in the body. This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. At the time of pregnancy, it is normal to higher the level of prolactin.
But if you are not pregnant, a higher level of prolactin can cause many problems such as no periods or irregular periods, infertility, breast milk discharge, and menopausal symptoms.
The treatment will depend on the diagnosis, in some cases, it can be treated with medicines like dopamine and alkaloid derivatives.
Fallopian Tubes Dysfunction
Fallopian tubes are an essential part of the human reproductive system. It is connected with the endometrial wall of the uterus.
Tubal disease in which fallopian tubes are blocked or damaged. It occurs when pelvic infection happens.
Pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes that occurred with a certain disease including gonorrhea, chlamydia, and other STDs
Surgeries have done previously for the ectopic pregnancy that can cause damage the fallopian tubes. Surgeries including the abdomen of pelvic can affect the tubes badly.
Pelvic tuberculosis, a major reason for infertility in females.
Endometriosis is a painful uterine disorder the similar tissues of the uterus grow outside of the uterus. It mostly affects the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and pelvis.
It acts as the endometrial tissue, it comes out with bleeding with every menstrual cycle. It may spread beyond the pelvic organs.
It has no way to come out from the body, it can cause adhesion, scars, and irritation. It can cause severe pain during menstrual periods.
Sometimes, it is diagnosed when a couple trying to get pregnant but can not achieve success.
Female with endometriosis, may experience heavy menstrual periods or bleed without the date of the menstrual cycle.
For a successful pregnancy, it needs to travel the egg from the ovary to the fallopian tube, and uterus after the fertilization.
Endometriosis tissue on the ovary and fallopian tube create a problem in a successful pregnancy.
The Bottom Line
Infertility can be caused by other factors as well that are not listed above. Uterine fibroids and cervical cancer may cause problem in the pregnancy. There are many different options to manage infertility and conditions given above the list.
Some women may need fertility treatments for conceiving. Sometimes infertility of couple being unable to conceive can cause of mental health.
Changing in lifestyle can make you able to conceive.
What Causes Female Infertility?
- Failure in Ovulation
- Infection around the pelvis region
- A disorder like Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroids, Implantation failure
What are the symptoms of Female Infertility?
- Pain during intercourse
- Heavy long, or painful periods
- Hormonal changes
- Dark menstrual blood
Can female infertility be cured?
It can be treated with medicines, surgery, and assisted reproductive technology, Combination of these therapies can lead of infertility. In most cases, it treated with drugs like hormonal pills, nutraceutical therapy.
Is female infertility genetic?
Sometimes female infertility can be genetic due to some factors. If a female cannot deliver a healthy baby, there may be a reason for genetic factors.